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The History Of Ghengis Khan
The Life of Genghis Khan (pg. 3)

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The Life Of Genghis Khan
The Life Of Genghis Khan (pg. 2)
The Life of Genghis Khan (pg. 3)
Accomplishments of Genghis Khan
Photo Album
Timeline of Major Events
Works Cited

After being crowned Great Khan, Genghis Khan was now ready to embark on foreign conquests.  Hostile status with China began in the spring of 1211 and by the end of the year, the Mongols had overrun all of northern China.  By the start of 1214, all lands in China north of the Huang He River (Yellow River) were in the Mongols possession.  They were not content with only this and were quickly closing in on the Jin capital at Beijing.  Peace was bought by the Chinese emperor at the price of a huge dowry of a Jin Princess for Genghis Khan's bride.  After this was completed, the Mongol invaders began to slowly withdraw from the capital to the north where they had control.  Even with this given to Genghis Khan, he was not satisfied and in the summer of 1215, Beijing was besieged and taken over.  However, the war was not quite over.  The brilliant conquest of North China was not fully completed until 1234.  Genghis Khan now made his move to relinquish personal command of operations, and returned to Mongolia in the spring of 1216 to give his attention to occurrences in Central Asia.  Genghis Khan's western territory lie adjacent to the state of Khwarizm, a large but poorly organized empire, ruled by the Sultan Muhammad.  The state covered the present-day countries of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan, as well as most of Iran and all of Afghanistan.  War between the two powers became unavoidable when Genghis Khan's ambassadors were murdered on the Syr Darya River at Otrar.  Leaving Mongolia in the spring of 1219, Genghis Khan used the summer of that year riding the Irtysh River and by fall had arrived in Otrar.  He left a force to besiege and eventually capture the town and, continuing west at the head of the main force, attacked Bukhara in February of 1220.  The city, deserted by it's garrison, surrendered only a few days into the siege.  The Mongols then continued to Samarqand, which, like Bukhara, offered little resistance fighting and was captured in the same year.  Genghis Khan then sent two of his best generals in pursuit of Sultan Muhammad who had fled.  The sultan sought refuge on an island but was found and killed there by Genghis Khan's army.  The generals, continuing west, crossed Caucasia and defeated an army of Russians and Kipchak Turks before reuniting with Genghis in Central Asia. 
 

In the fall of 1220, Genghis Khan captured Termiz on the Oxus River (present-day Amu Darya) and in the early stages of winter was active in the upper reaches of that river in what is Tajikistan today.  At the start of 1221, he crossed over the Oxus River into northern Afghanistan and captured the ancient city of Balkh.  Not much later, he dispached his elder sons to the north into Khwarizm to lay siege upon Muhammad's capital.  The youngest son was sent to eastern Persia to destroy the great, populous cities of Merv and Nishapur.  (Currently Mary, Turkmenistan and Neyshabur, Iran). 

While all this was occuring, Sultan Jalal al-Din, the son of the Sultan Muhammad, defeated a Mongol force at Parvan in cental Afghanistan.  Genghis Khan advanced south in the fall of 1221 when he was rejoined by his sons to defeat his previous adversaries son on the Indus River.  With the defeat of Jalal al-Din, the conquest of the west was virtually over, and Genghis Khan continued by easy stages on the long journey back to Mongolia.  In the fall of 1226, he was once again at war with the Chinese Tangut tribal confederation, but did not live to see the end of this war which turned out to be another victory.  He came to his deathbed in August of 1227 in his summer home in the district of Qingshui; south of the Luipan Shan (Liupan Mountains) in Gansu, China.